Skip to Main Content
Banner Image
ESR & Bethany Resources
Friends Collection & College Archives
Facilities & Services
Library Home

All Science: ES Sci Citation

All the possible science resources

ES Citation and ALL General Citations

Science Citation Summary Chart

CITATION GOAL: To fulfill the two-fold goals: Giving credit to the author of the source and enabling another person to locate the source.

The following are the basic components that you should try to include in ALL cited work:

  • Author(s), Editors or both if relevant, [Note. If not available or clear, use organization’s name or website title)
  • Year of publication, [Note. If the resource has NO clear visible date, use n.d. and if it is an online resource share also the date when information was accessed]
  • Title, [Note. If it is an electronic resource you may need to write at the end of the URL link the type resource]
  • Publisher (for datasets this is often the archive where it is housed)
  • Edition, version, or issue [Note. include page numbers if it is an article or chapter of a report, book, document]
  • Access information (a URL or other persistent identifier, DOI preferred).


General Note. If some of the information is missing (no author, no date...), omit those elements from your reference or write the name of the institution.

Electronic Resources General

Websites, datasets, can vary tremendously in terms of the "bibliographic information" that they provide or one could extract from them because:

  • Authors or dates may or may not be noted, they may change due to recent contributions to the data.
  • Some websites are very dynamic in nature, constantly changing, being updated, changing gatekeepers, shifting ownership, or changing their URL entirely.
  • Electronic resources may have specific ways that they request for you to cite their work. This is the first piece of information that you need to look for *.

*Sometimes in “About us”, or towards the end of a website “Copyright or Permissions”, or in the middle “Cite this page” or at times in the metadata of a data set (e.g., ArcGIS shape files) author(s) request that you cite their works in a very specific way. Use what they suggest as a starting point to harvest the information you need. Adapt this information to the Citation Style Format you have been asked to use.





(Print or electronic)

Journal Article


Article types:

[hard copy, peered-review, electronic, primary, review article, etc]


[e.g., PLoS, Science (hard copy), full-text Annual reviews, PDF from Elsevier, etc]

Herring, P. J. 2007. Sex with the lights on? A review of bioluminescent sexual dimorphism in the sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 87:829.

[1 author]

Saunders, K. O., Freel, S. A. , Overman, R. G., Cunningham, C. K., and Tomaras, G. D. 2010. Epigenetic regulation of CD8+ T-lymphocyte mediated suppression of HIV-1 replication. Virology 405:234–242.
[2 authors]

Frahm, E., and Feinberg, J.M. 2013. From flow to quarry: magnetic properties of obsidian and changing the scale of archaeological sourcing. Journal of Archaeological Science 40, 3706–3721.


Islam, S.M.S., Bennamoun, M., Owens, R.A., and Davies, R. 2012. A review of recent advances in 3D ear- and expression-invariant face biometrics. ACM Computing Surveys 44, 1–34.

Note how the initials come after the first author, but before the subsequent authors. Only the first word of article title is capitalized. After the name of the journal comes the volume number and then a colon and the page numbers. Italicize genus and species names. If an article has many authors 10+ ALL authors name need to be written down.



(Print, electronic, audio)

Book with Authors


Collins, F.S. 2011. The language of life: DNA and the revolution in personalized medicine 1st Ed. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, USA.

Kuhn, T. 1996. The structure of scientific revolutions 3rd Ed. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

Book with Editors


Scriver, C. R., Beaudet, A. L., Sly, W. S., and Valle, D. editors. 2000. The metabolic basis of inherited disease. 8th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, USA.

Book Chapter or part of book


Newton, I. 1988. Age and reproduction in the sparrowhawk. Pages 201-219 in T. H. Clutton-Brock, editor. Reproductive success. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA

Electronic Book

Darwin, C. 1859. The origin of species by means of natural selection. [EBook #2009]. (Accessed May 1, 2013).

Kindle Book

Quammen, D. 1996. The song of the dodo: island biogeography in an age of extinction. [Kindle Edition 2011]. (Accessed Apr 20, 2014).

Audio Book

Darwin, C. 1859. The origin of species by means of natural selection. [Audiobook 2008]. (Accessed Apr 20, 2014).

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or eBook

Gaston, K. G. 2010. Biodiversity. Pages 27-42 in S. S. Navjot and P. R. Ehrlich, editors. Conservation biology for all. [EBook]. (Accessed Apr 14, 2014).



(Print, electronic)

Magazine or newspapers or journals that do not number pages continuously between issues


Packer, C., and Pusey, A. E. 1997. Divided we fall: cooperation among lions. Scientific American 276(5):52-59.

Kolata, G. 1997, July 27. Some scientists ask: how do we know Dolly is a clone? New York Times; Section C:3.

[NYT Print]

Parker-Pope, T. 2008, May 6. Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. [Blog]. (Accessed May 10, 2008).

[NYT Electronic]

Note In some publications, each issue starts with page number one.  Thus for a given volume or year, several articles may start on the same page number. To avoid confusion, supply an issue number as well as a volume number and/or include the year, month, and day of publication.



Professional (.gov, .org, .edu, etc), personal websites, online encyclopedias, wikis

Professional Website or Lab website

Curtis, R. 1998, February 25. Princeton environmental reform committee (PERC) home page. [Webpage]. (Accessed Oct 20, 2013)

Non periodical web document, web page, or report

National Cancer Institute. n.d. [Reviewed: 06/24/2013]. Cell phones and cancer risk. [Webpage]. (Accessed Feb 20, 2014)

American Cancer Society. n.d. [Reviewed: 02/23/2012]. Cellular phones. [web-page]. (Accessed Feb 1, 2014).

Personal Website

Smith, C. 2011, September 23. Chris Smith’s home page. [Website]. (Accessed May 20, 2013)

Program website

HGCI Programs Green Campus Loan Fund. 2002. In Harvard Green website campus Initiative. [Website]. (Accessed May 27, 2003)

Note When there is no author, use page title in place of author

Online Encyclopedias (e.g., Britannica)

Feminism. n.d. [Reviewed: 02/02/2010]. In Encyclopædia Britannica online. [Website]. (Accessed Jan 1, 2012).

Online Forums

Frook, B. D. 1999, July 23. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia. [Msg 25, Web log comment, Video file]. (Accessed April 13, 2013).

Wikipedia or Wikis

Cystathionine beta synthase. n.d. [Revised Feb 8, 2014]. In Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. [Wiki]. (Accessed Feb 3, 2014).

Note: Wikis (like Wikipedia, for example) are collaborative projects that cannot guarantee the verifiability or expertise of their entries.



(Genemoics data, GIS data, proteomics data, etc)

Databases or Data sets


Example: NCBI databases maintained and or connected to NCBI (e.g., OMIM, Gene, GenBank, BLAST)

 KEGG, Neotropical Birds, RCSB Protein Data Bank, Human Protein Reference Database HPRD, etc


Weizmann Institute of Science. n.d. The GeneCards human gene database; Gene=ABCB4. (Accessed Apr 1, 2014).

National Center for Biotechnology Information. n.d. PubChem Database; CID=2519, [Database]. (Accessed Jun 15, 2011).

Sensenig, A., Blackledge, T., and Agnarsson. I., n.d. Silk tensile and web architecture measurements for 280 individuals and 22 species of Araneidae. Dryad Digital Repository. [Internet]. (Accessed Jun 16, 2011].

Royal Society of Chemistry. n.d. ChemSpider; Caffeine, CID=2424. [Database]. (Accessed Jun 15, 2011).

Flannagan, K., Schmidt, K., and Tori, W. P. 2012. Lance-tailed Manakin (Chiroxiphia lanceolata). Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. [Webpage]. (Accessed Apr 1, 2014)

Note. For some databases/datasets source might specify best ways to cite their information. When available use their suggested citation but accommodate to this style (e.g., HPRD has a special style)


OTHER Sources not existing either print or online

Interview, email, or other personal communication

Because this source is unavailable to anyone else but you, omit from the Literature Cited list.

In the text of your paper, however, refer who, the way in which the information was obtained. For example:

(Blair, P., personal communication)

Earlham College • 801 National Road West • Richmond, Indiana 47374-4095