Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Reference Sources for French
French Studies Web
A great place to browse for high-quality links, maintained by the Western European Studies Section of the Association of College and Research Libraries.
Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 by
Publication Date: 2006
The overseas empires of Western Europe, including the US first as colony then as colonizer, is deemed here to have ended in the middle to late 20th century. Over 400 articles provide information about such aspects as economic concepts and ideas, explorations and migrations, industries, organizations and institutions, people and peoples, religions,
Encyclopedia of Diderot and d'Alembert
Online version of the 28-volume encyclopedia published between 1751 and 1772, courtesy of the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago. Search and browse the encyclopedia in English, but the results are in French.
Lexique des termes littéraires
A dictionary of literary terms, courtesy of lettres.net, an online resource for francophone professors and students of literature.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution
Courtesy of George Mason University, over 600 primary documents.
The Siege and Commune of Paris, 1870-1871
Courtesy of Northwestern University, over 1200 images and photographs.
CESAR: calendrier électronique des spectacles sous l'ancien régime et sous la révolution
Explores the world of 17th- and 18th-century French theater. It includes an imagebank containing thousands of images, and a full-text database of contemporary play reviews, police reports, and treatises on drama.
Reference Sources for Spanish
LANIC: Latin American Network Information Center
A great place to browse for links on any topic related to Latin America, maintained by the University of Texas at Austin.
Iberian Studies Web
A great place to browse for links on any topic related to Spain, maintained by the Western European Studies Section of the Association of College and Research Libraries.
Pew Hispanic Center
Publications, surveys, and data about Latinos' diverse experiences in the USA. Topics include demography, education, politics, immigration, labor, and much more.
Real Academia Española
The world's definitive record of the Spanish language, published in Spain.
Reference Sources for Arabic
Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature by
Publication Date: 1998
The Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature is an authoritative reference source on the most important authors, works, genres, key terms, concepts and issues in the Arabic literary tradition. The Encyclopedia covers the classical (pre-Islamic to 1258), transitional (1258-1798) and modern periods within a single work. In over 1300 separately-authored entries, many of the world's experts combine current research with traditional study to provide authoritative analysis and commentary on a wide range of areas. These include major authors, important works, and a variety of literary terms. Also covered are forms such as poetry, drama and newspaper writing and key critical concepts of Arabic literature.
Oxford Essential Arabic Dictionary
Publication Date: 2010
The Oxford Essential Arabic Dictionary is a brand-new compact Arabic-English and English-Arabic dictionary that offers up-to-date coverage of all the essential day-to-day vocabulary, with over 16,000 words, phrases, and translations. This dictionary is easy to use and ideal for students, travel, and quick reference. Designed for both native English and Arabic speakers, the supplementary sections offer guidance on Arabic verbs and irregular verbs. Phonetic transcriptions are provided for each English entry, and phonetic respelling for irregular Arabic pronunciations. Arabic entries are also listed according to alphabetical order, not by root, in order to make word searches more user-friendly. Additional supplements give help with tricky areas, such as numerals and expressions of time. The Oxford Essential Arabic Dictionary is the ideal companion for anyone needing a reliable and portable Arabic-English and English-Arabic dictionary for study, work, or travel.
Earlham College • 801 National Road West • Richmond, Indiana 47374-4095